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Although results from clinical trials are mixed, the majority of evidence indicates that enteric-coated peppermint oil may be modestly effective in reducing some of the common symptoms of IBS. In combination with caraway oil, it also may be effective in treating non-ulcer dyspepsia. Limited data show a modest effect at reducing colonic spasm during barium enema. Topical peppermint oil also may be helpful for treatment of tension headache. Peppermint oil should only be used at the recommended doses because significant toxicity can occur at higher doses. Even the recommended medicinal doses of peppermint oil should not be used in infants or very young children, or in women who are pregnant or lactating.