In premenopausal women the majority of estrogen produced by the body is estradiol (produced primarily in the ovaries), while in postmenopausal women estrone (produced in fat cells) is the type of estrogen present in the greatest amount; however, the body is able to convert one type of estrogen into another to a certain extent. Because of the limited research into potency, delivery methods and conversion of the various estrogens, a valid scientific understanding of compounded estrogen products has not been achieved.  Synthetic estradiol, taken orally, splits when absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and delivers bioidentical estradiol to the bloodstream. 
Commenting, Professor Kamilla Miskowiak, of Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark (who was not involved in the study) said: "This is a highly interesting study which shows no long-term cognitive side-effects of antidepressants, tranquilizers or low-dose antipsychotic medication in schizophrenia. This is reassuring since many patients are worried about taking these medications because of their potential negative effects on cognition. In contrast, long-term high-dose antipsychotic medication was associated with poorer cognitive outcome. This underscores the importance of close dose monitoring of antipsychotic medication for these patients to improve their cognitive outcome."