When diagnosing anemia in adult females it is important to know that there are stages of iron-deficiency anemia. According to the World Health Organization, one in twelve reproductive-age women and teenage girls has a biochemical iron deficiency, but less than a quarter of these women are anemic. The stages begin when iron stores, as measured in serum ferritin, are low, 10–15 ng/mL, but not exhausted. There may be no symptoms present. The next stage is when iron stores are completely exhausted. Serum ferritin will be below 10 ng/mL. In the final stage, no iron remains in the bone marrow stores, red blood cell production drops, and anemia is obvious in both lower than normal hemoglobin and ferritin in the single digits.
Blood tests. Cardiac enzymes are proteins that are released into the blood by dying heart muscles. These cardiac enzymes are creatine phosphokinase (CPK), special sub-fractions of CPK (specifically, the MB fraction of CPK), and troponin, and their levels can be measured in blood. These cardiac enzymes typically are elevated in the blood several hours after the onset of a heart attack. Currently, troponin levels are considered the preferred lab tests to use to help diagnose a heart attack, as they are indicators of cardiac muscle injury or death. A series of blood tests for the enzymes performed over a 24-hour period are useful not only in confirming the diagnosis of heart attack, but the changes in their levels over time also correlates with the amount of heart muscle that has died.
But switching to a fully adjusted model of the gender wage gap actually can radically understate the effect of gender discrimination on women’s earnings. This is because gender discrimination doesn’t happen only in the pay-setting practices of employers making wage offers to nearly identical workers of different genders. Instead, it can potentially happen at every stage of a woman’s life, from girlhood to moving through the labor market. By the time she completes her education and embarks on her career, a woman’s occupational choice is the culmination of years of education, guidance by mentors, expectations of parents and other influential adults, hiring practices of firms, and widespread norms and expectations about work/family balance held by employers, co-workers, and society (Gould and Schieder 2016). So it would not be accurate to assume that discrimination explains only the gender wage gap that remains after adjusting for education, occupational choice, and all these other factors. Put another way, we cannot look at our adjusted model and say that discrimination explains at most percent of the gender wage gap. Why? Because, for example, by controlling for occupation, this adjusted wage gap no longer includes the discrimination that can influence a woman’s occupational choice.